Economics essays feminization labour market

The common variable in the villages studied comprises availability of the green revolution technology. Except the category of divorced people, men always have higher employment rates than women in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Turkey.

If productivity does not differ, after some point of time, employers will naturally go for female labour because of the lower wage cost. Labor Markets and Feminization of Labor Force 12The increased liberal orientation in policy-making and the recent trends in production, investment and trade patterns have had a significant impact on labor markets, in general, and on gendered dynamics in labor markets, in particular.

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As a result, they have turned increasingly to casual labor, contract labor, outsourcing, home-working and other forms of subcontracting. Interestingly, two modernising forces-farm mechanisation, and adoption of improved farm practices affect labour participation in the opposite direction.

It argues that the level of gender equality prevailing in the norms, institutions and policies of a country at the time of integration into the global economy determines the extent of this imbalance.

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As mentioned above, Standing emphasizes the search of firms for much lower labor costs giving priority to the type of workers who are ready or willing to be employed with low wages: In industrialized and industrializing countries, firms have turned to forms of labor offering the prospect of minimizing fixed non-wage costs. The report further adds that integration into the global economy affects women from different social groups in a particular country in different ways. This argument seems to be a bit unconvincing. The ratios differ also from region to region noticeably. The informalization could thus be expected to be a major factor stimulating the growth of female employment across the world. Millions and millions of women in such families live or rather drag out an existence as household slaves, striving with a desperate daily effort to feed and clothe their families on a few coppers, economizing in everything except their own labour. Labor Markets and Feminization of Labor Force 12The increased liberal orientation in policy-making and the recent trends in production, investment and trade patterns have had a significant impact on labor markets, in general, and on gendered dynamics in labor markets, in particular. The paper suggests a number of measures to help rural women, whose working day is often considerably longer than that of men. The findings point toward steps for promoting the dignity of manual work. Interestingly, two modernising forces-farm mechanisation, and adoption of improved farm practices affect labour participation in the opposite direction. By developing unity as well as personality, a worker should be able to hold his or her own against tyranny from employers or the state. The study spans almost the whole of Andhra Pradesh and, perhaps this breadth of analysis somewhat hinders the depth of analysis. They find out that countries which are more intensively involved in structural adjustment processes have turned to an outward oriented growth policy and have increased their share of exports in their Gross Domestic Product GDP and experienced a feminization of the labor force. Paddy transplanting, winnowing and weeding emerged as female dominated activities, while women were equal partners in harvesting and threshing.

The cloth merchants countered the charges against them with a news article of their own, denying the allegations and testifying to their fair treatment of the head-loaders. On the contrary, in countries such as Brazil, India and Malaysia, women were introduced and welcomed into more skilled jobs like software programming and computer analysis.

One example is the increase in the amount of imported subsidized agricultural products and consumer goods, leading to declining livelihoods of formerly women producers. This diminishing return to on-the-job continuity has been one reason for resorting to casual or temporary labor, or for job-rotating, and has been a determinant of the tendency to collapse job classifications into more broadly based job clusters, such that workers can be shifted from one set of tasks to another from time to time.

These jobs are normally characterized by very low pay, irregular income, little or no job or income security and lack of social protection UNCTAD, 5.

A level economics labour market essays

If productivity does not differ, after some point of time, employers will naturally go for female labour because of the lower wage cost. Fourth, increasing emphasis on trade liberalization and export-led industrialization has had implications for women's labor force participation especially in less-developed countries. And even then what was put across as issue is the retaliatory act of the perpetrator, not the act constituting the harassment itself. Sexual harassment was dismissed as a normal occurrence which women have to put up with, whether in the workplace, schools, and other places. Though division of work by gender is not fixed for all regions and times, the historical division of labour precludes women from entering into high productivity work. Divorced women are more eager to participate in employment compared to never married, married or widowed women. It has been argued that a technology can affect there female workers differentially depending on the category they belong to. Agricultural workers usually belong to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other backward castes.
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