The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty restricted all nuclear testing to underground nuclear testingto prevent contamination from nuclear fallout, whereas the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons attempted to place restrictions on the types of activities signatories could participate in, with the goal of allowing the transference of non-military nuclear technology to member countries without fear of proliferation.
Similar measures could be applied to nuclear weapon components. Transparency and monitoring measures for declared stocks of NEM at declared sites, comparable with those for nuclear weapons, could include: Comprehensive declarations describing the quantities and locations of all existing inventories of NEM, together with information on chemical forms and isotopic composition on the material; Declarations of inventories of NEM surplus to military and civilian needs; and Provisions for inspections of all declared facilities as well as of any undeclared suspicious activities.
This technique can be used to construct thermonuclear weapons of arbitrarily large yield, in contrast to fission bombs, which are limited in their explosive force.
The Soviet Union first developed nuclear capabilities in This is extremely costly, difficult, and time-consuming, and is one of the central barriers to constructing a nuclear bomb.
Their significance may best be appreciated by the coining of the words kiloton 1, tons and megaton 1, tons to describe their blast energy in equivalent weights of the conventional chemical explosive TNT.
More advanced systems, such as multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles MIRVscan launch multiple warheads at different targets from one missile, reducing the chance of a successful missile defense. One of the stated casus belli for the initiation of the Iraq War was an accusation by the United States that Iraq was actively pursuing nuclear arms though this was soon discovered not to be the case as the program had been discontinued.
As was seen from the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki inthe detonation of a nuclear weapon in or near a populated area can cause enormous numbers of casualties and extensive damage to civilian infrastructure.