An analysis of getting even revenge
As noted, revenge is a normal phenome- non with a protective function. Goudswaard, H.
Greenberg Eds. A different explanation might be that people may process their injury and integrate the feelings of pain and hurt that Downloaded from ijo. This is a different approach than the one undertaken by Jon Elsterwho addressed the individual rationality of revenge behavior the suffering cannot be undone, worrying takes time and energy, and there is a risk of counter-revenge.
Pros and cons of vengeance
This is dependent on the personality of the avenger and the function the revenge fantasies and ruminations have. Review by Paige K. The depressive and the psychopath: At last we know why the Columbine killers did it. Seventy-seven people were killed and others injured, most of them teenagers. The most vengeful people were those who had a low degree of forgiveness and were high in narcissism, independent of gender and healthy self-esteem. Whether the purpose is actually going to be achieved is irrelevant, revengefulness is intrapersonal and inde- pendent of reality. Clinical Illustrations Anders Breivik Breivik is the perpetrator of attacks in Norway in during which he bombed gov- ernment buildings in Olso and then carried out a mass shooting at a camp of the Downloaded from ijo. Measuring individual differences in the tendency to forgive: Construct validity and links with depression. Ultimately, these fantasies enable them to commit mass murder-suicide. Over het ontstaan van onze lentecultuur als gevolg van gewijzigde vroegkinderlijke condities [Are we narcissistic enough? In this case, the goal of the violence is relief after an unendurable tension because of the repeated intrusions of revenge. This is unlike revenge connected to hatred, which is more obsessive and inward-fac- ing. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, Brown, R. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Prometheus.
He was alienated e. Vos described retaliation as regulated revenge. Measuring individual differences in the tendency to forgive: Construct validity and links with depression.
Reasons for revenge
Harris, who wanted to hurt people, directed his aggressive impulses outward. Ultimately, he dealt with his internal stressors although recruited by Harris by acting out, expressing in physical pain what he could not stand to feel emotionally. In this case, the goal of the violence is relief after an unendurable tension because of the repeated intrusions of revenge. When the fantasies function to disguise repressed feel- ing of emptiness and loss, or to restore the grandiose self, these revenge feelings are ego-syntonic. The psychology of interpersonal relations. This review does not include the neurobiological literature, for example, the role of striatum activation seen in positron emission tomography PET imaging when human volunteers play a game designed to elicit revengeful acts de Quervain et al. Vos divided the desire for revenge into four elements: humiliation damage to self-esteem , the belief that the damage to self-esteem is incorrect, the drive for restoration of equality of power, and the desire to cause harm, including the risk of excessiveness and the desire to elevate oneself morally above the other. Therefore, he did not plead guilty. Later, it became clear that Columbine was intended to be a massive bombing after which Harris and Klebold planned to shoot the fleeing survivors but the bombs did not go off Cullen, The authors of this text argue that when a work environment is so rife with problems that employees begin to seek their own justice through revenge, workplace leaders must take action. As with Breivik, their emotions were long- term and intense, feelings of revenge prospered over time with a great deal of rumina- tion without any fine-tuning.
based on 96 review