An analysis of ban smoking in public places
Banning smoking in outdoor public places
It had to report information on health and smoking before the policy or ban started and for at least six months afterwards. It is therefore important to disseminate information about the law in order to eliminate smoking in public places. Objectives: To assess the extent to which institutional smoking bans may reduce passive smoke exposure and active smoking, and affect other health-related outcomes. Most of the study participants were civil servants Data collection and analysis: Two or more review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion in the review. Apparently previous research indicates a general rejection of the displacement hypothesis, but the focus was not specifically on SHS exposure of children at home before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation. Studies comparing households with and without children were excluded. Children living with an adult smoker are up to twice as likely to take up smoking themselves [ 11 , 12 ]. Authors' conclusions: We found evidence of an effect of settings-based smoking policies on reducing smoking rates in hospitals and universities. It is necessary to increase sensitization of the general public and enforcement of the law. Conclusion The assumption of a displacement of smoking into homes with children due to smoke-free legislation in public places could not be confirmed. There is inconsistent evidence of an impact on respiratory and perinatal health outcomes, and on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.
Heterogeneity was lower in subgroups defined by setting, and provided evidence for an effect of tobacco bans on reducing active smoking rates. Whilst smoking is banned in many public places, it is not banned in all of them.
We evaluated all studies using a qualitative narrative synthesis. Evaluation of included studies The data extraction was performed by the first author SN and checked for accuracy for all studies by the last author GB.
We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. However, there is a growing body of evidence that supports the rejection of the displacement hypothesis, and instead supports the alternative social diffusion hypothesis which suggests that changes in social norms due to public smoking bans may result in an increase in voluntary home smoking bans [ 6713 — 15 ].
Introduction There are about 1. This calls for urgent attention in order to reduce the effects of tobacco exposure among this population.
Smoking ban in public places
Whilst smoking is banned in many public places, it is not banned in all of them. Finally, 15 studies [ 10 , 25 — 38 ] were included in this systematic review with regard to the eligibility criteria. This was the case for three studies reporting on the Health Survey for England [ 26 , 30 , 33 ]. While the majority felt that the law prohibiting cigarette smoking in public places in Osun State is necessary, fewer smokers saw the necessity of this law in protecting both their and public health. Ann Afr Med. Smoking on trains was banned completely by the Deutsche Bahn AG in The impact of bans was strengthened if compliance was good, if baseline smoking prevalence was low and if air quality was good. The data shows that even at low levels of the smoke, there is the risk and the risks increases with more exposures. Method Descriptive cross-sectional study design. The ACC provides professional education and operates national registries for the measurement and improvement of quality care.
We have included 17 studies in this review. In the US, states were encouraged to pass laws providing separate smoking sections. The search was restricted to German and English language articles only, with no further restrictions on e.
However, we rated the evidence base as low quality. An abbreviated version of the search strategy was entered into the database OAlster for grey literature.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
based on 67 review